Bibliography / References
(O) Website Overview
O-1. Global Internet Liberty Campaign, gilc.org/speech/osistudy/censorship, website viewed on April 30th, 2012
(CH) Brief History of Censorship
CH-1. Newth M., Beacon For Freedom Of Expression, www.beaconforfreedom.org/liste.html?tid=415&art_id=475, 2010, website viewed on May 20th, 2012
CH-2. Random History Website, Guarding Public Morality : A Global History Of Censorship, www.randomhistory.com/censorship-history.html, 2010, website viewed on May 21st, 2012
(CR) Rationale Behind Censorship Can be Divided As
CR-1. Spencer N., Military Censorship Of The War In Iraq, World Socialist Web Site, www.wsws.org/articles/2008/jul2008/cens-j31.shtml, 2008, website viewed on May 3rd, 2012
CR-2. Huang C., Censors Ban Martyn See's Film On Dr Lim Hock Siew, Channel News Asia, Singapore News, www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/, 2010, website viewed on May 2nd, 2012
CR-3. Moore M., Vatican Banns 'Godless' Da Vinci Code Sequel Angels And Demons From Rome Churches, The Telegraph, News,
www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2139472/Vatican-bans-godless-Da-Vinci-Code-Sequel-Angels-and-Demons-from-Rome-Churches.html, 2008, website viewed on May 4th, 2012
CR-4. Oliva S. M., Must The Government Decide If KFC Is Good For You, Ludwig Von Mises Institute, mises.org/daily/2234, 2006, article viewed on May 1st, 2012
CR-5. Atkins R. and Mintcheva S., Excerpt : Censoring Culture : Contemporary Threats To Free Expression, AlterNet, www.alternet.org/media/34758, 2006 article viewed on May 6th, 2012
CR-6. Arsehsevom, Cultural Censorship In Iran, www.arsehsevom.net/2011/09/cultural-censorship-in-iran, website viewed on May 5th, 2012
(CS) Singapore Censorship
CS-1 Maps of the World: Culture of Singapore, http://www.mapsofworld.com/singapore/culture.html, website viewed on 15th May, 2012
CS-2. One Nation Under Lee , http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=17qhGIwyGj0, viewed on 18th May, 2012
CS-3. Press-pedia Journalism Website, Lee Kuan Yew. http://presspedia.journalism.sg/doku.php?id=lee_kuan_yew, last modified on 7th July, 2007, Viewed on 19th May, 2012
CS-4. Kwang, Han Fook, Warren Fernandez and Sumiko Tan. 1998. Lee Kuan Yew: The Man and His Ideas. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings.
CS-5 The Films Act, http://statutes.agc.gov.sg/aol/search/display/, Viewed on 20th May, 2012
CS-6 MDA Website, The Evolution of Classification,
http://www.mda.gov.sg/Industry/Films/Classification/Pages/, website viewed on May 20th, 2012
CS-7 Board of Film Censors Classification Guidelines, http://www.mda.gov.sg/Documents/Classification_Guidelines_15072011.pdf, Viewed on 21 May, 2012
CS-8 Loh A, The Online Citizen, Film on Lee Kuan Yew seized by MDA http://theonlinecitizen.com/2008/05/film-on-lee-kuan-yew-seized-by-mda/, Published on 17th May, 2008, Viewed on 24th, 2012
CS-9 Barkham P, The Guardian Website: Jailed in Singapore for Writeing a Book they Didn't Like, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jul/27/jail-singapore, Viewed on 24th May
CS-9 Hiramoto S, Studies in Global Media, http://www.media-studies.ca/globalmedia3/hiramoto/singapore.htm , Viewed on 24th May, 2012
CS-10 Ang P H, Nadarajan B, Censorship and Internet: a Singapore Perspective, http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/apcity/unpan004065.pdf, Viewed on 24th May, 2012
CS-11 Berthelsen J, Asia Sentinel Website, Singapore's Lees Cow the International Tribune Again http://www.asiasentinel.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2359&Itemid=383, website viewed May 24th, 2012
CS-12 Tomorrow Website, May 19, 2008 post, http://tomorrow.sg/comment/view/6474021 ,Viewed on 30th May, 2012
(CA) Australian Censorship Overview
CA-1. OpenNet Initiative, Australia and New Zealand, opennet.net/research/australia-and-new-zealand, website viewed on May 8th, 2012
CA-2. Griffith G., Censorship In Australia: Regulating The Internet And Other Recent Developments, NSW Parliamentary Library Research Service, 2002, p.6
CA-3. Australian Information Industry Association (AIIA), Convergence Review, Department Of Broadband Communications And The Digital Economy, 2011, p.5
CA-4. Australian Law Reform Commission (ALRC), Enacting The New National Classification Scheme, www.alrc.gov.au/publications/13-enacting-new-national-classification-scheme/classification-cooperative-scheme#_ftn2, website article viewed on May 20th, 2012.
(CACHR) Chronological Progression Of Australian Censorship
CACHR-1. Internet Archive Wayback Machine, The Age : Daily News, web.archive.org/web/20011119054828/
http://www.theage.com.au/daily/990526/news/net11.html, 1999, website viewed on May 15th, 2012
(CANCS) Australian National Classification Scheme
CANCS-1. Australian Law Reform Commission, National Classification Scheme Review : Discussion Paper, Commonwealth Of Australia, 2011, p.32
CANCS-2. Classification, National Classification Scheme, www.classification.gov.au/ClassificationinAustralia/Pages/
NationalClassificationScheme.aspx, website viewed on May 21st, 2012
(CACC) Australia Censorship Classification
CACC-1. Classification, Classification Markings Explained, www.classification.gov.au/Classificationmarkings/
Pages/Classificationmarkingsexplained.aspx, website viewed on May 23rd, 2012
CACC-2. Classification, Classification Training Courses, www.classification.gov.au/Applyforclassification/
Training/Pages/Classificationtrainingcourses.aspx, website viewed on May 23rd, 2012
CACC-3. Classification, Classification Markings On Film and Computer Games, www.classification.gov.au/Classificationmarkings/
Pages/Classificationmarkingsonfilmandcomputergames.aspx, website viewed on May 23rd, 2012
(CAALRC) Australian Law Reform Commission
CAALRC-1. Australian Law Reform Commission, About, www.alrc.gov.au/about, website view on May 20th, 2012
CAALRC-2. Australian Law Reform Commission, Classification : Content Regulation And Convergent Media (ALRC Report 118), www.alrc.gov.au/publications/classification-content-regulation-and-convergent-media-alrc-report-118, published on February 29, 2012, last modified on March 1st, 2012, website viewed on May 22nd, 2012
(CACS) Case Studies In Australia
CACS-1. Bolt A., Real-Science Website, Julia Makes It Illegal To Criticize Her, www.real-science.com/julia-illegal-criticize, 2011, news article viewed on
May 20th, 2012.
CACS-2. Ross N., ABC Website - The Drum, Censorship : Labor's Hidden Policy, www.abc.net.au/news/2010-07-21/censorship-labors-hidden-policy/914176, 2010, news article viewed on May 20th, 2012
CACS-3. Melonfarmers.co.uk, Moralist Censors..., www.melonfarmers.co.uk/thread00245_sex_shop_raids_in_australia.htm, June 25th, 2010, the article was sourced from The Australian Sex Party Website, www.sexparty.org.au, news article viewed on May 20th, 2012
(CB) Bahrain Censorship
(CB-1) “Arab Advisors Group reveals Bahrain's communications connectivity leading the region,” AMEinfo, August 5, 2008, http://www.ameinfo.com/165459.html.
(CB-2) OpenNet Initiative, Bahrain, http://opennet.net/research/profiles/bahrain , website viewed on May 15th, 2012
(CB-3) "General Tables". Bahraini Census 2010. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
(CB-4) BBC, “Country profile: Bahrain,” March 11, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/country_profiles/790690.stm.
(CB-5) John Bradley, Dailymail, “The ancient loathing between Sunnis and Shi'ites is threatening to tear apart the Muslim world, Updated 21 March 2011
(CB-6) Human Rights Watch, “Bahrain: Events of 2007,” January 2008, http://www.hrw.org/legacy/englishwr2k8/docs/2008/01/31/bahrai17594.htm.
(CB-7) Al-Jazeera English "Bahrain Activists in 'Day of Rage' – Anti-Government Protests in Shia Villages Around the Capital Leave Several People Injured and One Person Reported Dead", Retrieved 14 April 2011
(CB-8) BBC News "Bahrain King Declares State of Emergency after Protests". Retrieved 15 April 2011
(CB-9) "Killing the Messenger: Bahrain’s Brutal Crackdown". Freedom House. October 2011.
(CB-10) Bahrain News Agency, "HM King Hamad Sets up Royal Independent Investigation Commission", Bahrain News Agency, 29 June 2011
(CB-11) Beatriz Gill, Toonori Post, Bahrain and the Impact of Social Media, 27 September 2011,
(CB-12) Jeffrey Fleishman "After crushed protests, Bahrain is accused of deepened oppression of Shiites", May 12, 2011, Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2011/may/11/world/la-fg-bahrain-shiites-20110502
(CB-13) Al-Jazeera , Bahrain added to web censorship blacklist, Last Modified:13 March 2012
(CB-14) "Blocking a Facebook Group that Calls People to go Down the Streets and Demonstrate against the Authority’s Policy". Bahrain Center for Human Rights. 6 February 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
(CB-15) Khalil Rinnaw, 2006, Instant Nationalism: McArabism, Al-Jazeera, and Transnational Media in the Arab World, University Press of America, Maryland
(CB-16) Freedom House, Freedom of the Press 2008 - Bahrain, 29 April 2008, accessed 7 June 2012
(CB-17) Bahrain Center for Human Rights, “Detainees in newsletter and website case beaten and ill-treated; journalists warned over dignity of royal image,” July 9, 2008,
(CB-18) Jihad al-Khazen, "Censorship and State Control of the Press in the Arab World", Harvard. International Journal of Press Politics, v.4 no.3 (1999), pp. 87-92.
(CB-19) Bahrain News Agency, Al Arab News Channel and Rotana Media Group to establish in Bahrain, 27 December 2011
(CB-20) Andy Sennitt, Radio Netherlands Worldwide, Bahrain opposition group plans satellite TV station 7 January 2012
(CB-21) William A.Rugh, 2004, Arab Mass Media: Newspapers, Radio, and Television in Arab Politics, The Loyalist Press, United States of America, pp.73
(CB-22) Dylan Bowman, Kuwait, Bahrain ban Kingdom, Arab Buisness, http://www.arabianbusiness.com/kuwait-bahrain-ban-kingdom-53941.html , 2007, website viewed on May 10th , 2012
(CB-23) Manjusha Radhakrishnan, 2010,Bipasha Basu starrer Lamhaa banned in the UAE, , Gulf News, website viewed on May 10th , 2012
(CB-24) Ivana Davidovic,2012 Screening: Bahrain: Shooting in the Dark Q&A with May Welsh, Jon Blair, and ex-Bahraini MP, Frontline, website viewed on May 10th , 2012
(CB-25) Press Law 47, 2004, Ministry of Cultre, Bahrain